Brahmin

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Brahmin (Brahmana)
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Brahmin (/ˈbrɑːmɪn/; also called Brahmana; from the Sanskrit brāhmaṇa ब्राह्मण) are traditional Hindu societies of India, Nepal and The Far East.

Brahman, Brahmin, and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self. Brahmin (or Brahmana) refers to an individual belonging to the Hindu priest, artists, teachers, technicians class (varna or pillar of the society) and also to an individual belonging to the Brahmin tribe/caste into which an individual is born; while the word Brahma refers to the creative aspect of the universal consciousness or God. Because the priest / Acharya is knowledgeable about Brahma (the God), and is responsible for religious rituals in temples and homes and is a person authorized after rigorous training in vedas (sacred texts of knowledge) and religious rituals to provide advice and impart knowledge of God to members of the society and assist in attainment of moksha, the liberation from life cycle; the priest / Acharya class is called "Brahmin varna." The English word brahmin is an anglicized form of the Sanskrit word Brāhmana.

According to ancient Indian philosophers and scholars, the human society comprises four pillars or classes called varnas or colors. In the ancient Indian texts such as Smritis, vedas, upanishads, puranas, etc., these four "varnas" or classes or pillars of the society are: the priests / Acharya (Brahmins), the rulers and military (Kshatriyas), the merchants and agriculturists(Vaishyas), and the Assistants (Shudras).

Brahmin priests / Acharya were engaged in attaining the highest spiritual knowledge (brahmavidya) of Brahman (God) and adhered to different branches (shakhas) of Vedas. Brahmin priest is responsible for religious rituals in temples and homes of Hindus and is a person authorized after rigorous training in vedas and sacred rituals, and as a liaison between humans and the God. In general, as family vocations and businesses are inherited, priesthood used to be inherited among Brahmin priest families, as it requires years of practice of vedas from childhood after proper introduction to student life through a religious initiation called upanayana at the age of about five.

Individuals from the Brahmin castes/tribes have taken on many professions such as priests, ascetics and scholars to warriors and business people, according to 12th century poet Kalhana, in Rajatarangini.[1] According to Valmiki, a hunter and Sanskrit poet, in Ramayana history, Brahmin sage Parashurama is an Avatar (divine incarnate representation) of Lord Vishnu, who takes up arms against kings to deliver justice. Sage Parashurama is portrayed as a powerful warrior who defeated the [3]

Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, son of a Brahmin sage Parashara and a fisher woman Satyavathi, in his Mahabharata, describes several warriors belonging to Brahmin caste/tribe, such as Dronacharya, Kripacharya, Parashurama etc., who were professors in the schools of martial arts and the art of war.

History

According to Purusha Sukta, a Rigveda hymn, Brahmins were born from purusha's (Vishwakarma's) face.

Most sampradayas (sects) of modern Brahmins claim to take inspiration from the Vedas. According to orthodox Hindu tradition, the Vedas are apauruṣeya and anādi (beginning-less), and are revealed truths of eternal validity. The Vedas are considered Śruti ("that which is heard") and are the paramount source on which Brahmin tradition claims to be based. Śruti texts include the four Vedas (the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda), and their respective Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.

Apart from clerical positions, Brahmins have also historically been ministers (known as Sachivas or Amatyas) in dynasties.

Clerical positions

  1. Swami (Priest) - Purohita (performer for domestic ceremonies) and Rtvij (performer of seasonal ceremonies)
  2. Acarya or Upadhyaya (Spiritual teacher)
  3. Yogin
  4. Tapasvin - Mendicant

Requirements for being Brahmin

According to a Buddhist scripture, at the time of the Buddha in eastern India there were five requirements for being Brahmin:[4]

  1. Varna (ubhato sujato hoti) or Brahmin status on both sides of the family
  2. Jati (avikkitto anupakutto jativadena)
  3. Mantra (ajjhayako hoti mantradharo)
  4. Sila or virtue
  5. Panditya or learned

Practices

Brahmins, basically adhere to the principles of the Vedas, related to the texts of the Śruti and Smriti which are some the foundations of Hinduism, and practice Sanatana Dharma. Vedic Brāhmaṇas have six occupational duties, of which three are compulsory — studying the Vedas, performing Vedic rituals and practicing dharma. By teaching the insights of the Vedic literature which deals with all aspects of life including spirituality, philosophy, yoga, religion, rituals, temples, arts and culture, music, dance, grammar, pronunciation, metre, astrology, astronomy, logic, law, medicine, surgery, technology, martial arts, military strategy, etc. By spreading its philosophy, and by accepting back from the community, the Brahmins receive the necessities of life.

Male members of all Brahmin sects wear the Yagnopaveetham (Hindi:जनेऊ or sacred thread) that is a symbol of initiation to the Gayatri recital. This ritual is often referred to as Upanayana. This marks the learning of the Gayatri hymn. Brahmin sects also generally identify themselves as belonging to a particular Gotra, a classification based on patrilineal descent, which is specific for each family and indicates their origin.

Brahmin communities

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The Brahmin castes may be broadly divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins from the Northern part of India (considered to be the region north of the Vindhya mountains) and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins from the region south of the Vindhya mountains as per the shloka of Kalhana.

  • Saraswat, Kanyakubja, Gaud, Utkala and Mithila form the Pancha Guada
  • Karnataka, Telangaa, Dravida, Maharashtra and Gurjarat form the Pancha Dravida

Pancha-Gauda

Adi Guru Shri Gauḍapādāchārya, the grand guru of Shri Adi Shankaracharya and the first historical proponent of Advaita Vedanta, also believed to be the founder of Shri Gaudapadacharya Math.

The Brahmins from Sārasvata, Kanyakubja, Gauda, Mithila and Utkala, who with passage of time spread to North East, East and West, were called Pancha Gauda. This group is originally from Uttarapatha (Āryāvarta). Pancha Gauda Brahmins are divided into five main categories:

Sarasvat Brahmins

Kanyakubja Brahmins

Gauda Brahmins

Mithila Brahmins

The Angika (a south-eastern dialect of Maithili) as their mother tongue.

Utkala Brahmins

The Sanskrit text Brāhmaṇotpatti-Mārtaṇḍa by Pt. Harikrishna Śāstri mentions that a king named Utkala invited Brahmins from the Gangetic Valley to perform a yajna in Jagannath-Puri in Odisha. When the yajna ended, these Brahmins laid the foundation of Lord Jagannath there and settled around Odisha, Jharkhand and Medinipur. The Utkala Brahmins are of three classes 1) Shrautiya (vaidika), 2) Sevayata and 3) Halua Brahmins.

Pancha-Dravida

Brahmins who live in south of Vidhya mountains are called Pancha-Dravida Brahmins and they are divided into following groups. Drava means Water in sanskrit. Peninsular area in India surrounded by water is "Dravida".

  • Karnataka
  • Telugu
  • Dravida (Tamil Nadu & Kerala)
  • Maharashtra
  • Gujarat

Andhra Pradesh

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Brahmins of Andhra Pradesh known as Telugu Brahmins are broadly classified into five groups: Vaidiki Brahmins, Vishwa Brahmins,Niyogi, Dravida Brahmins, and Vaikhānasa.

Niyogis are further divided into the following subcategories: Nandavarika Niyogi, Prathama Shakha Niyogi, Aaru Vela Niyogulu, Karanaalu, Sistukaranalu, Karana kamma vyaparlu, Karanakammulu.

Maharashtra

During the days of Maratha India, these Marathi/Konkani Brahmins primarily served as prime ministers or Peshwas,[5] apart from taking up military jobs and converged into the sovereign or the Chhatrapati of Satara. One of the notable Peshwa families is the Bhat family, who happen to be Chitpavan Konkanastha Brahmins.[6] They took up military jobs[7] and ended up being the de facto head[8] of the Maratha Dynasty.[9] Originally the Chitpavan held a low rank in the social hierarchy amongst Marathi Brahmins, however in modern times they enjoy the same social ranking with Deshastha and Karhade Brahmins, inter-marriages between these three communities is now very common.

Karnataka

Kannada Brāhmans(ಕನ್ನಡ ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮಣ): The Brāhmans of the Carnatic, or the Canarese country. The Canarese area comprises Mysore State, and the British Districts of Canara, Dharwar and Belgaum.[10]

Tamil Nadu

Kerala

Nepali Brahmins

Bahun is a colloquial Nepali term for a member of the Pahari or "Hill" Brahmin (ब्राह्मण) caste, who are traditionally educators, scholars and priests of Hinduism. They are also known as Barmu in Newari, Bavan in Kham. Brahmins are the second largest caste group in Nepal (12.18% of the population), with the Chhetri (Kshatriya) being the first (16.60%).[12]

Rishis

Due to the diversity in religious and cultural traditions and practices, and the Vedic schools to which they belong, Brahmins are further divided into various subcastes. During the sutra period, roughly between 1000 BCE to 200 BCE, Brahmins became divided into various Shakhas (branches), based on the adoption of different Vedas and different rescension Vedas. Sects for different denominations of the same branch of the Vedas were formed, under the leadership of distinguished teachers among the Brahmins.

There are several Brahmin law givers, such as Angiras, Apasthambha, Atri, Bhrigu, Brihaspati, citation needed]

Claimants of Brahmin ancestry

Rishi Agastya, one of seven vedic sages extolled at many places in the Vedas and author of Agastya Samhita

Many Indians and non-Indians(though they may have Indian relatives.) claim descent from the Vedic Rishis of both Brahmin and non-Brahmin descent. The descent of Brahmins is generally indicated by the gotra, which refers to his patrilineage. It is indicated by the name of the 'great sage' to whose descent the Brahmin is said to belong.

Descendants of saints

Claimants of Brahmin status

  • Brahmakshatriyas claim the status of Brahmins, and that they had taken the military profession since ancient history, and sometimes claim to descend from a Brahmin Pravara Rishi.[15]
  • Jethis or Jyestimallas of Gujarat identify as Modh Brahmins and claim ancestry from Agnihotri Brahmins.[16]
  • Namasudra community of Bengal in the beginning of the twentieth century claimed Brahmin status and in 1901 a Vyavastha was signed by 41 Chief Brahmin Pundits all over Bengal, Headed By The Chief of All of them, Mahapopadhya of Nabadwip which declared the community as descendant of ancient sages or Rishis and that they should not be named or called as 'sudra".[17][18]

Sampradayas

The three sampradayas (sects) of Brahmins, mostly in South India are the Smarta sampradaya, the Srivaishnava sampradaya and the Madhvacharya (Swami Ananda-Teertha) Madhva sampradaya. Aadi Shakaracharya contributed towards the revival of Vedic Religion at a time when Buddhism was most popular. He toured throughout India and re-established the faith in Vedas and Hindu gods. He composed countless verses (stotras) praising all the principle forms of gods and goddesses like Shiva, Vishnu, Durga, Lakshmi, Saraswati etc., at various pilgrim centers. In the later times Ramanujacharya and Madhvaacharya gave new definitions and reviewd Vedas according to the then Social and religious circumstances and established other Sampradayas viz Shri-Vaishnav and Madhva.

Smartism

Smartism (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as it is termed in Sanskrit) is a liberal or nonsectarian denomination of the Hindu religion. This tradition is based on the Advaithic teachings of Adi Sankaracharya. He united various sects of Hinduism under on umbrella by accepting all the major Hindu deities as forms of the one Brahman. He implored the Smarthas to have an Ishta devatha in the form of Siva, Sakthi, Vishnu, Ganesha, Murugan (Subrahmanya) or Sun. The term Smarta refers to adherents who follow the Vedas and Shastras.

Vaishnavism

One form of Vaishnavism is Madhwa (Dwaita Sampradaya or Madhva Sampradaya), and the other is Sri Vaishnava (Vishishtadvaita sampradaya). Madhwa Brahmins are mainly located in the Carnatic plains and some of them are seen in Andhra, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. They follow the teachings of Sri Madhvacharya, who was born in South Canara district of Karnataka in the 12th Century. He preached Dvaita, which says that God and atma (soul) are different entities, which is contradictory to the teachings of Sri Adi Sankaracharya, who preached Advaita vedanta (non-duality). In South India, Sri Vaishnava sampradayam was propagated by Srimad Ramanujacharya.Any way all the three philosophers though different in their philosophies believed Lord Vishnu to be the supreme soul.

Shaivism

Shaivism (sometimes called Shivaism) is a belief system where Lord Shiva is worshipped as the Supreme Lord. It is a derivative faith of the core Vedic tradition. Saiva sects contains many subsects, such as Asdisaivas, Rudrasaivas, Veerasiavas, Paramasaivas, etc. Ravana, the ruler of Lanka in the Hindu epic Ramayana, was a staunch Siva devotee, who was the grandson of creator Brahma.

Other sects

There are additional sampradayas, which are not as widely followed:

The Mahima Dharma or "Satya Mahima Alekha Dharma" was founded by the Brahmin Mukunda Das of present-day Odisha, popularly known by followers as Mahima Swami according to the Bhima Bhoi text.[19] He was born in the last part of the 18th century, in the former state of Baudh, a son of Ananta Mishra. He was Brahmin by caste as mentioned in Mahima Vinod of Bhima Bhoi in Vol.11. This sampradaya is similar to Vaishnavism. Although the members of this sect do not worship Lord Vishnu as their Ishta-Deva, they believe that the Srimad Bhagavatam is sacred. The founder of this sect was a Vaishnavite before founding the new order.[19] This sampradaya was founded in the latter part of the 18th century.[19]

There is also the Avadhoot Panth, wherein Lord Dattatreya and his forms such as Narasimha Saraswati and Sai Baba of Shirdi are worshiped. Lord Dattatreya is worshiped by many as the Hindu trinity – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in one divine entity. Many even worship Dattatreya as an Avatar of Vishnu or of Shiva.

Burma (Myanmar)

Manipuri astrologers and Brahmins in Burma, 1900

Historically, Brahmins, known as ponna (ပုဏ္ဏား) in modern-day Burmese, formed an influential group in Burma prior to British colonialism. Until the 1900s, ponna referred to Indians who had arrived prior to colonial rule, distinct from kala, Indians who arrived during British rule. During the Konbaung dynasty, court Brahmins were consulted by kings before moving royal capitals, waging wars, making offerings to Buddhist sites like the Mahamuni Buddha, and for astrology.[20] Burmese Brahmins can be divided into four general groups, depending on their origins:

  • Manipur Brahmins (Burmese: မုနိပူရဗြာဟ္မဏ): Brahmins who were sent to Burma after Manipur became a Burmese vassal state in the 1700s and ambassadors from Manipur
  • Arakanese Brahmins (Burmese: ရခိုင်ဗြာဟ္မဏ): Brahmins brought to Burma from Arakan after it was conquered by the Konbaung king Bodawpaya
  • Sagaing Brahmins: the oldest Brahmins in Burmese society, who consulted the Pyu, Burman[disambiguation needed] and Mon kingdoms prior to the Konbaung dynasty
  • Indian Brahmins: Brahmins who arrived with British colonial rule when Burma became a part of the British Raj

According to Burmese chronicles, Brahmins in Burma were subject to the four-caste system, which included brahmanas (ဗြာဟ္မဏ), kshatriyas (ခတ္တိယ), vaishya (ဝေဿ), and shudra (သုဒ္ဒ). Because the Burmese monarchy enforced the caste system for Indians, Brahmins who broke caste traditions and laws were subject to punishment. In the Arakanese kingdom, punished Brahmins often became kyun ponna (ကျွန်ပုဏ္ဏား), literally 'slave Brahmins', who made flower offerings to Buddha images and performed menial tasks. During the Konbaung dynasty, caste was indicated by the number of salwe (threads) worn; Brahmins wore nine, while the lowest caste wore none. Brahmins are also fundamental in the Nine-God cult, called the Nine Divinities (Phaya Ko Su ဘုရားကိုးစု) which is essentially a Burmese puja (puzaw in Burmese) for appeasing nine divinities, Buddha and the eight arahats, or a group of nine deities, five Hindu gods and four nat spirits.[20] This practice continues to be practiced in modern-day Burma.

Thailand

Brahmins in Thailand are known as 'Phram' or 'Paahm' (Thai: พราหมณ์ ) and claim ancestry to Indian Brahmins who migrated to Thailand in the 6th century AD.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/490128/Rajatarangini
  2. ^ Saraswati, Swami Sahajanand (2003). Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Rachnawali in Six volumes (in Volume 1). Delhi: Prakashan Sansthan. pp. 519 (Volume 1). ISBN 81-7714-097-3. 
  3. ^ Crooke, William (1999). The Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh. 6A, Shahpur Jat, New Delhi-110049, India: Asian Educational Services. pp. 1809 (at page 64). ISBN 81-206-1210-8. 
  4. ^ Govind Chandra Pande. Foundations of Indian Culture. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  5. ^ "Dictionary - Definition of Peshwa". Websters-online-dictionary.org. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  6. ^ "peshwa (Maratha chief minister) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  7. ^ "Shrimant Bajirao Peshwa : Great warrior and protector of Hindu Dharma - Valiant Hindu Kings | Hindu Janajagruti Samiti". Hindujagruti.org. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  8. ^ The Satara Raj, 1818-1848: A Study in History, Administration, and Culture - Sumitra Kulkarni - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  9. ^ "India : Rise of the peshwas - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  10. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India By R.V. Russell
  11. ^ The Tale of Tuluva Brahmins
  12. ^ page# 156
  13. ^ Manu Smriti on learning of the Vedas
  14. ^ Padmasali Brahmin origin
  15. ^ P. 59 History of Mediaeval Hindu India By Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya
  16. ^ P. 525 Gujarat By K S Singh; R B Lal; Anthropological Survey of India.; et al
  17. ^ P. 192 Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition, 1932-1947 By Joya Chatterji
  18. ^ Biswas, R.K. (2010: Progressive Book Forum,KOLKATA). Namasudra Movements in Bengal (1872–1947). Appendix I,II,III. ISBN 978-81-88006-19-9. 
  19. ^ a b c "Mahima Dharma, Bhima Bhoi and Biswanathbaba"
  20. ^ a b Leider, Jacques P. "Specialists for Ritual, Magic and Devotion: The Court Brahmins of the Konbaung Kings". The Journal of Burma Studies 10: 159–180. 
  21. ^ P. 91 Thailand into the spirit world by Marlane Guelden

Further reading

External links

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