Kongu Nadu

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Kongu Nadu (கொங்குநாடு)
—  Geographical/Historical Area  —
Kongu Nadu (கொங்குநாடு)
Location of Kongu Nadu (கொங்குநாடு)
in Tamil Nadu and India
Coordinates 11°0′45″N 78°9′36″E / 11.0125°N 78.16°E / 11.0125; 78.16Coordinates: 11°0′45″N 78°9′36″E / 11.0125°N 78.16°E / 11.0125; 78.16
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
Largest city Coimbatore
Civic agency Government of Tamil Nadu
Population

Density


Literacy 62.61%% 
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area

Kongu Nadu (Tamil: கொங்குநாடு) is a region comprising the western part of the Tamil Nadu India. The region is bounded on the west and north-west by the Karnataka state, on the west by the Kerala state, on the east by Tondai Nadu, on the south-east by Chola Nadu and on the south by Madurai regions of Tamilakam.[2][3] Also called Chera Nadu.

Contents

Etymology

The name Kongu Nadu is believed to have been gained from 'Kongadesam', "Konga" a derivant of the term "Ganga", meaning 'land of the Gangas' see Western Ganga Dynasty[4]. Kangayam is the old capial of kongu nadu (Sanskrit: Ganga+eyam = Gangeyam : seat of the Western Ganga Dynasty

Geography

The geographical extent of Kongu Nadu is roughly confined to the territories of the ancient Tamilakam.[2][3]

Coimbatore, the largest city in the region

Being the origin and seat of the Sangam period Cheras, the area is otherwise known as Chera Nadu [5][6]. Chera is also referred to as Kongan many times. His mountains are the Kolli Malais and his seat Karuvur on the banks of Anporunai.

The geographical region is called Kongunadu in Tamil, which is derived from Kangu (கங்கு) (Komaralingam copperplates) and Kanganadu (கங்கநாடு, lit.: the land of the Ganga people).Kangeyam(Sanskrit: Ganga+eyam = Gangeyam : seat of the Western Ganga Dynasty). This region was located within Kaveri catchment basin. 17th century poet Valasundara Kavirayar refers to the borders of Kongunadu in his work Kongumandalasatakam.[7]

See also Madukkarai wall

Paddy fields

Economy of the Kongu region

The Kongu region mainly in the following fields/industries.

Kongu Nadu has the highest urban proportion in the State and contributes 2/3 of the Tamilnadu's State revenue. but often ignored by the govt.[8]

Kongunadu Cuisine

The Kongunadu cuisine is basically a collection of exotic recipes being created by the people residing in the Kongu region. The cuisine is quite extensive for a simple reason that the Kongu region is very vast. Some of the aspects that make Kongunadu cuisine very special are:

  • The recipes have their own nativity and style.
  • Unlike other cuisines, Kongunadu cuisine does not involve marination of any raw material. As a result the food has a different taste and unique texture.
  • Addition of roasted groundnut paste in curries and Khormas creates a very different flavour
  • Turmeric is always added into curries as freshly grated and ground after roasting. This gives the product a deep yellow colour and an aromatic substance
  • Kongunadu cuisine is not very oily, which is not the case with other cuisines
  • The cuisine is healthy and nutritious owing to use of considerable amount of pulses
  • The recipes had no sort of standardization and the recipes found their origin based on the specialty of that particular city of Kongunadu.
  • This is evident from the following instances:
    • Use of copra (dry coconut) due to the abundance of coconut trees in the kongu region.
    • Pickles happens to form an important part in the food
    • The traditional Kongu people were mostly Diet In Hinduism [9]. The very word for a slaughter house is quasab kadai (கசாப்பு கடை), quasab meaning butcher in Urdu as Muslims were the first to butcher for commercial purposes[10]. Beef is taboo cows are considered divine.
    • Sweets like 'Teluvu Halwa','Teluvu Payasam', 'Elanir Halwa', 'Elanir Payasam' formed part of the regular food in kongu region."Vaalai" is a type of sweet made with the basic ingredients rice,karupatti (Palm Jaggery) and cloves. again thanks to abundance of coconut and palm trees.[11][12][13]

History

The Kongu people were the first to set up a territorial state in the South Indian history. The History of ancient Kongunadu is linked invariably to the history of Kongu Vellalars(Gounders), a high/dominant caste of Tamil feudal lords and landlords. Kongu Vellala Gounders are Kshatriyas originally of the Kosala (கோசர்கள்) country who migrated in prehistoric times to Kanchipuram, then through [14]

Kongunadu was blessed with enormous wealth, a pleasant climate and distinct features. Kongunadu was ruled over by The Chera, Chola, Pandya, Hoysala, Muslim rulers and finally the British. The Kongu country was one of the earliest territorial divisions and home of the ancient Tamilians. It figures in the earliest Tamil literature that, it has acted as the pass for foreign powers to penetrate or capture the Tamil country. The people of the Kongu country had preserved a characteristic type of culture which seemed to be the sustainable derivation of early "Tamilians"of the south. The puzzling megalithic culture had been widely in vogue in the Kongu country. In earlier times the Three Sovereigns of the Tamil country were the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas. There is a mention that the victory over the Kongu country to be one of the greatest events in their war-like annals. The history of the Kongu country was an integral saga and was of great value for the compilation of the history of Tamilnadu as a whole.[15]

Archaelogical sites

Kodumanal and Perur, villages on the banks of the Noyyal River in the Coimbatore district, were situated on the ancient trade route between Karur and the west coast, across the Palghat gap on the Western Ghats. Both sites have yielded remains belonging to the Sangam age. Roman coins were also founde on these sites indicating that trade flourished between Romans and the kings of these regions.

A sword bit and a dagger piece found at the site were put to metallographic test. The study revealed that the sword bit contained a spheroidal graphite phase and forgewelding of high carbon cutting edge on low carbon dagger bit. A thin layer was found coating the cutting edge and probably used to protect it from rust.[16]

Kodumanal was popular for the gem-cutting industry and manufacture of jewels. Sites bearing natural reserves of semi-precious stones such as beryls, sapphire and quartz are located in the vicinity of Kodumanal. Beads of sapphire, beryl, agate, carnelian, amethyst, lapis lazulli, jasper, garnet, soapstone and quartz were unearthed from here. The samples were in different manufacturing stages – finished, semi-finished, drilled and undrilled, polished and unpolished and in the form of raw material. Chips and stone slabs, one with a few grooved beads, clearly demonstrate that these were manufactured locally at Kodumanal[17]

Tamil-Brahmi writings are also found in coins, seals and rings of the Sangam age. Many of them have been picked up from the Amaravathi river bed near Karur. A smaller number of inscribed objects have been picked up from the beds of other rivers like South Pennar and Vaigai.[18]

"The advent of the early historical period in south india is generally dated to the 3 rd century BCE. As mentioned earlier.recent archelogical data from the site of Kodumanal suggests the possibiliaty of earlier beginnings ,at least the 4th century BCE."[19]

A musical inscription in Tamil Brahimi was found in a cave in the Arachalur region, dating from the Fourth Century A.D. Iravatham Mahadevan writes that these are syllables used in dance.[20][21]

Medieval Kongu King List

In Chola times. 'Kongu under autonomous rule narrates the rule of these rulers under the namenclature 'Kongu Cholas' [22]

1. Achyuta Rayan;(Venadudayar family : அச்சுதராயர் )

2. Jatavarman Kulottunga cholan?;(Kongu Cholas Dyanasty)

3. Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan;(Pandya Dyanasty)

4. Kok-kalimurkha Vikrama cholan;(Kongu Cholas Dyanasty)

5. Kokkanadan Viranarayanan;(Kongu Cholas Dyanasty)

6. Kulottunga Cholan;(Kongu Cholas Dyanasty )

7. Maravarman Sundara Pandyan;(Kongu Cholas Dyanasty)

8. Nanjarayan;

9. Parakesari Vikrama cholan;(Kongu Cholas Dyanasty)

10. Rajakesari Kulottunga cholan;(Kongu Cholas Dyanasty)

11. Rajakesari Vira Narayana devan;(Kongu Cholas Dyanasty)

12. Rajakesari Vira Pandyan;(Kongu Cholas Dyanasty)

13. Rajakesari Virarajendran;(Kongu Cholas Dyanasty)

14. Vira cholan;

15. Vira Pandyan;

16. Vira Somisvaran;

17. Vira Vallalan[23]

See also

Sources

  • Dr. Nagaswamy Roman Karur [1]
  • Tiruppur Kumaran (Chennimalai-Erode)
  • Kongudesarajakkal, Government manuscript Library, Chennai
  • Dheeran Chinnamalai by Pulavar Dr. Rasu.

References

  1. ^ Census of India, 2001. Census Data Online, Population.
  2. ^ a b S. Gajrani (2004). History, Religion and Culture of India, Volume 2. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 5. ISBN 81-8205-061-8, ISBN 978-81-8205-061-7. 
  3. ^ a b S. Gajrani (2004). History, Religion and Culture of India, Volume 2. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 7. ISBN 81-8205-061-8, ISBN 978-81-8205-061-7. 
  4. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=gxsrz7DAPxIC&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33&dq=kongadesa+rajakkal&source=bl&ots=qZ448ot7XR&sig=6i-WsvmMbmt-2U4sA-xceL_TACA&hl=en&ei=uYSlTfK4LY3prQeQhvzyCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
  5. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=FnB3k8fx5oEC&pg=PA156&dq=coimbatore+salem+chera+sovereign&hl=en&ei=GTOgTcriOonxrQfO0aj-Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=coimbatore%20salem%20chera%20sovereign&f=false
  6. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=FnB3k8fx5oEC&pg=PA230&dq=chera+nerumangalam&hl=en&ei=bTOgTY-hJcyHrAfig9n0Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=chera%20nerumangalam&f=false
  7. ^ "கோவை - 2010 [Coimbatore-2010]" (in Tamil). World Classical Tamil Conference 2010. http://www.ulakathamizhchemmozhi.org/content/%E0%AE%95%E0%AF%8B%E0%AE%B5%E0%AF%88-2010. 
  8. ^ "Kongu Nadu Desham Website Info : Significance of Kongu Nadu"
  9. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ffTmAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA330&dq=madras+canara+mysore+vaylalar+animal+flesh&hl=en&ei=r4GlTczqNIHzrQf5w4HuCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
  10. ^ http://www.urduword.com/search.php?English=butcher
  11. ^ "Kongu Food Info : Kongunadu Cuisine". http://kongufood.blogspot.com/. 
  12. ^ "Kongu Food Info by Times : Kongunadu Cuisine by TOI". http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/food/food-reviews/Taste-some-cuisine-from-Kongunadu/articleshow/6067619.cms. 
  13. ^ kongu : 17 Recipes
  14. ^ http://kongunadumaps.blogspot.com/
  15. ^ "Coimbatore Website Info : Behind the name Kongu Nadu". http://www.coimbatore.com/kongunadu/home.htm. 
  16. ^ Sasisekaran, B.; Raghunatha Rao, B. (1999). "I 999". Indian Journal of History of Science 34 (4). http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005b66_263.pdf. 
  17. ^ Rajan, K.; Athiyaman, N. (2004). "Traditional Gemstone Cutting Technology of Kongu Region in Tamil Nadu". Indian Journal of History of Science 39 (4): 385–414. http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/2000c951-385.pdf. 
  18. ^ Rami Reddy, V.; Chandrasekhar Reddy, B.K. (2004). "Morphometric Status of Human Skeletal Remains From Kodumanal, Periyar District, Tamil Nadu". Anthropologist 6 (4): 104–112. http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/T-Anth/Anth-06-0-000-000-2004-Web/Anth-06-2-091-157-2004-Abst-PDF/Anth-06-2-105-112-2004-Reddy-V-R/Anth-06-2-105-112-2004-Reddy-V-R.pdf. 
  19. ^ Upinder Singh (2009). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the to the 12th Century. Addison Wesley Pub Co Inc. ISBN 978-8131711200. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=H3lUIIYxWkEC&pg=PA385&lpg=PA385&dq=pugalur+inscription&source=bl&ots=xccx5UeRkF&sig=wjzCoeMKoI0RY7cViRBPnWhEF-o&hl=ta&ei=fthyTKHjCojKcbus3MIN&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CCwQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=kodu&f=false. 
  20. ^ Rao, Subha J. (1 October 2005). "Writing on the rock". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/mp/2005/10/01/stories/2005100101370300.htm. 
  21. ^ Parthasarathy, Indira (2 August 2003). "Records and revelations". The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/lr/stories/2003080300280400.htm. 
  22. ^ Ramamurthy, V. (2001). Kongu Nadu, a history up to A.D. 1400. Makkal Veliyeedu. http://books.google.co.in/books?ei=JpOETefpFML4cY2gpIgD&ct=result&id=SP03AQAAIAAJ&dq=kongu+chola&q=%27Kongu+under+autonomous+rule+narrates+the+rule+of+these+rulers+under+the+namenclature+%27Kongu+Cholas%27#search_anchor. 
  23. ^ Nagaswamy, R. (15 September 2007). "Kongu History". Tamil Arts Academy. http://www.tamilartsacademy.com/journals/volume8/articles/article3.xml. 


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