Lund Khwar

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Lund Khwar
Lundkhwar
—  Town and union council  —
Coordinates: 34°23′22″N 71°58′51″E / 34.38944°N 71.98083°E / 34.38944; 71.98083
Country Pakistan
Region Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province
District Mardan
Tehsil Takht Bhai
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Location of Mardan District (highlighted in yellow) within the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The city of Mardan is located in the south west of the district
Location of the historical village now Town & Union Council Lund Khwar.

Lund Khwar, also Lundkhwar, (Pashto: لوند خوړ) | Urdu: لوندخوڑ) and pronounced "/Lu:/+/nd/, /Kh/+/va'/+/r:/" is a historical village and union council of Takht Bhai Tehsil in Mardan District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.[1] It is located at 34°23'22N 71°58'51E with an altitude of 371 metres (1220 feet)[2] and literally it means "the ever flowing stream or brook". Origins of the founding of Lund Khwar are shrouded in mystery. Archeological and Historical evidence clue towards the Gandharan era.[3] Earliest written accounts of the village trace it back to the 8th century with the arrival of the Uthman Khel branch of the Yousafzai and in the 15th century by the Khattak tribesmen of the Afghans,.[4][5][6] Currently it is a major town near the entrance to the Malakand mountains. Alternatively, there is also a Lund Khwar in the Paktika Province of Afghanistan.

Landae / Landay Khwar, in Lund Khwar.
Landae / Landay Khwar, in Lund Khwar.

Contents

History

Ancient history

Lund Khwar has historically been an important town due to its geography. During the Gandharan era (2nd century BCE) it had been a visiting sanctuary for Buddhist Monks from their nearby strongholds at Takht Bhai. Many archaeological sites have thus been discovered. Even before the Buddhist times it was a major cattle and herd breeding area. Archeological and Historical clues point towards these conclusions. The armies of Alexander the Great reached the Indus Valley by two separate routes, one through the Khyber Pass and the other led by Alexander himself through Kunar, Bajaur, Swat, and Buner in 326 BCE. After Alexander's death, the valley came under the rule of Chandragupta, who ruled the valley from 297 to 321 BCE. During the reign of the Buddhist emperor Ashoka (the grandson of Chandragupta) Buddhism became the religion of the Peshawar Valley. The valley saw the revival of Brahmanism after the Greeks took over in the time of King Mehanda. The Scythians and Indians followed and retained control of the valley till the 7th century CE.

Arrival of the Afghans

By the 8th century, the Afghans had appeared in the valley. At that time the Peshawar valley was under control of the rulers at Lahore. The Afghans joined the Gakkhars who held the country between the Indus and the Jhelum rivers and compelled the Lahore rulers to cede to them the hill country west of the Indus and south of the Kabul River. Accordingly, the Yousafzai and the Khattaks founded and occupied what is modern day Lund Khwar. The first to arrive were the Uthman Khel of the Yousafzai in the 8th century CE following their migration eastwards from current day Afghanistan into the N.W.F-P. province of Pakistan.[7] and populated the area. At this time it was also occupied by Hindus who remained albeit scarcely until the Independence of Pakistan in 1947. The Yousafzai, conquered much of what was called Samah in the olden days from various Hindu Tribes. After Yousafzai Afghans the next major tribe was the Khattaks,[8] who settled here in 15th century, in the time of their great chieftain, Malik Ako, who moved the capitol of the Khattak Tribe from Teri (a village in Karak District) to Sarai Akora, the town which Akoray founded and built.[9] Another famous tribe the Dilazak[10] also settled here much later.

Ghaznavid Era

In the 10th century the area came under the control of Sultan Sabuktigin who defeated Raja Jaipal, the Hindu ruler of Lahore. Sabuktgin's son Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni made this area the rallying point for his numerous raids into the interior of India. In the 12th century the Persians of Ghor (Ghurids) overthrew the Ghaznavis and the era of Ghaznavis came to an end.

The Stream Landae/Landay Khwar, in Lund Khwar.
The Stream Landae/Landay Khwar, in Lund Khwar.

Mughal Era

In 1505 the Mughal emperor Babar invaded the area through Khyber Pass. Later, in the time of the Mughal Emperor Akbar his most prominent rathan Birbal (also Beerbal) was killed in the Katlang Area during a battle with the Yousafzai tribe. The relevant details of the incident are as follows[11]:

The Smite of the Navaratna Birbal

............"The Yousafzai and Khattak tribes of the Afghans in the North West had started low level skirmishes and looting raids against the Mughal Empire's outposts and trading routes along the East Bank of the River Indus, Attock and the Malandari pass. Attempting to crush the unrest, Akbar sent troops for the battle. However, the troops faced resilient resistance from the Afghans and suffered many losses. At this time, the Afghan Lashkar's (army) front was concentrated on one end in what is now the Katlang area of Lund Khwar to the other end near the Malandari Pass at the head of the Barkua Stream, about 30 miles N. E. of Hoti Mardan.[12] After a succession of defeats in the February of 1583 A.D. Akbar sent Birbal his Grand Vizier (Wazīr-e Azam), closest advisor and chief among the navaratnas to help Zain Khan in the battle. Birbal took command of the troops and around mid February marched into a concentrated formation of the Afghans in the Katlang area of Lund Khwar. On the 16th of February, 1583 A.D. during a major skirmish and while in the thick of the battle, Birbal along with his personal troops advanced into a narrow pass in katlang at night. The Yousafzai and the Khattak Afghans were well prepared and were ready on the hills. Many men on Birbal's side lost their way or were killed in the holes and the caverns and it was a terrible defeat, in which Birbal fought with bravery but died on 16 Feb 1583 A.D. Birbal's death was said to be caused by treachery, not military defeat. Akbar was very shocked by the death of Birbal and he didn't attend court for two full days and didn't eat or drink anything and mourned for a long time."

It remained under the rule of the Mughal emperors up to the time of Aurangzeb. During his regime the Pashtun tribes revolted and Aurangzeb himself led his army to re-establish his authority but after a hard struggle which lasted for two years(1673–75) he was compelled to agree to the terms which left the Pashtuns practically independent. In 1738 came the surrender of Peshawar to Nadir Shah by which all the territory west of the Indus, which included present Mardan district was ceded by the Mughals to Nadir Shah Afshar.

A scenic picture of the Landay Khwar Stream, in Lund Khwar.
A scenic picture of the Landay Khwar Stream, in Lund Khwar.

British Era

Ranjit Singh conquered Attock 1814 and Peshawar in 1818. He left Hari Singh Mfl1a in command and withdrew himself to Lahore. This valley remained under the control of the Sikhs until 1849. They were defeated by the British in the Second Sikh War. Major Lawrence was appointed first Deputy Commissioner of Peshawar. From that time Peshawar (which included Mardan) became an administrative district under the Punjab Government. In 1909 Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (than NWFP) province was constituted and in 1937, Peshawar district was bifurcated into Peshawar and Mardan districts.

About Lund Khwar, Sir Olaf Caroe in his book entitled "The Pathans 55O B.C.-A.D. 1957" printed St Martin's Press 1958 by MacMillan and Company Limited, writes at "The Greek Historians 39"[13] writes:

..........."Lundkhwar, village and stream in Samah"

Valley of the Latter Day Saints (Ulema)

Lund Khwar has always remained very rich in its Islamic tradition and heritage of knowledge.[14] Not only have many Lund Khwarians been great Ulema graduating in great numbers from great institutions like Deoband and a very famous personality of lundkhawar whom graduated from these institution was sahib-e-haq (saint Abdul Ali). but lundkhawar has also served as a home for many famous Saints, Ghazi and Ulema. Such famous names include Saint Syed Abdul Wahab Akhun Panju Baba, Syed Ismail Shaheed Barelvi, Shah Ismail Shaheed and Haji Sahib of Rashakai great great grandson of Sadar Khan. The people of the village contributed to the liberation of India in the 19th century by joining Syed Ahmad Shaheed Barelvi.

A sight from one of the entrance bridges, in Lund Khwar.
A sight from one of the entrance bridges, in Lund Khwar.

Military Campaigns and references of the British Period

"Ahmad (Ahmad Shaheed Barelvi) suffered a crushing defeat and fled with a few followers to Lund Khwar (1827), to Swat and then to Buner" [15][16]

"Operation is the Lund Khwar Valley 1849" [17]

"The 1st Brigade was then at Lundkhwar, on the road to the Shahkot pass ; the 2nd and 3rd Brigades were at Jellala, on the road to the Malakand pass. Consequent on the above information I determined to deceive the enemy" (1895) [18]

Plundering by the Sikh

"There is scarce a village," records the Peshawar Gazetteer, "from the head of the Lundkhwar Valley to the Indus, which was not burnt and plundered by this commander (Ranjit Singh)" [Ranjit looted and plundered then set fire to Lund Khwar as the Afghan offence against him traditionally centered in Lund Khwar among the Yusufzai and the Khattaks] [19]

Holy war against the Sikh

"500 yards long and 300 yards broad, formed by two short, steep and rugged spurs from the lofty ridge of hills dividing Lundkhwar from Sudum. Only the year previously the village had repulsed a superior force under the Sikh Sirdar.." [20]

It is important to note here that, the word Sudum, a modified form of Sodom, a valley on the outskirts of Lund Khwar near Rustam is considered locally to be of Hebrew origin, a reference to Mount Sodom a hill along the southwestern part of the Dead Sea in Israel. Considered as a local legend, it used to be part of poetry verses sung by local bards. However Pushto bard verses are poorly preserved in printed material.

Role in the Pakistan Freedom Movement

The Khans of the town grew famous because of their early involvement in politics(khan ghulam Muhammad khan lundkhwar)had a great name in the politics of sub-continent.[21] This was brought about when the Khans grew rich from trade with the far reaches of India as far as Calcutta. In the late 19th century political thought had grown to a point where it became necessary for the English Imperialists to permanently station their troops here. This was justified on the basis that religious leaders and freedom fighters from the village joined forces against the English. With such a background the English becamain streams and a smaller brook from 3 directions which flow throughout the year thus lending Lund Khwar its name as well as a safety against possible invaders, a strategic point and basis for its foundation. The town is connected with Sher Garh through a main road which reaches the town through a bridge on the stream.

In his book, "The Pathan Unarmed: opposition & memory in the North West Frontier", Mukulika Banerjee writes on page 98,[22]:

".........A Chief Secretary's report from 193 stated that:

In and around Lund Khwar.......increase in the active participation of women. On 30 April...15 women volunteers paraded....in Lund Khwar it was announced that meetings would be held....about two or three thousand at meetings...Speech prepared by Abdul Ghaffar Khan read out by a boy and resolutions passed that, if permanent peace was not concluded, the women should join the men in future struggle, that khaddar [khadi cloth] only should be worn by the women and that the full rights of women under the shari'a should be conceded to them by men."

Note on the reference[22]: The name of the boy who read out the speech was Qasim Khan, the son of a woman Grana who because of the purdah could not participate in the presence of adult male speakers.

"Though not publicly acknowledged, British official correspondence confirms that women picketers were active in Bannu and Lund Khwar. In mobilizing the Pathan women, Khurshedbehn Naoroji appears to have played an important role as she lived there for some time and worked among the frontier ladies exhorting them to start Swadeshi activities" [23]

Ghaffar Khan and Ghulam Muhammad Khan

"The only serious challenge to his (Ghaffar Khan's) position came from Ghulam Muhammad Khan of Lundkhwar, a Khan among the Baizai Khattaks of Mardan District, who served as the PCC President in 1938. There was no ideological basis for the rift, no burning issues to divide the two men. The conflict was purely a struggle for power.." [24]

LundKhwar, Quaid-i-Azam and Pakistan

"Met Ghulam Mohammad Lundkhwar, Abdul Qaiyum Khan, Qasim Shah Mian and Dr. CG Ghosh in the evening." [25]

Current Times

Lund Khwar is now a Union Council of the Takht Bhai Tehsil of Distrcit Mardan. It falls in the NA-10 seat of the National Assembly's Electoral Process.[26]

Localities and parts

Lund Khwar consists of the main town, once a walled town which had five gates, and its surrounding sub-towns known as "Banda" and barbarity by stripping the men and lashing them, the men were randomly chosen and lashed just to frighten the villagers.[27] Years of armed struggle later culminated in political figures such as Khan Lund Khwar who with the "Pila Khel "Kati kheil""Shah Bat Khel""dewan khel" "Awal Khael" participated and became famous for his struggle in the liberation movement of Pakistan. It was therefore not out of place for politicians of international fame to have visited the village. Such famous people that visited include Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru of the All India Congress, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman founder of Bangladesh, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Sardar Abdur rab Nishtar All India Muslim League. Prime minister zulfiqar ali bhuttu also visited lund khwar.

Location

It is located some 18 km from Takht Bahi, 10 km from Sher Garh and about 30 km from Mardan on the National Highway between Swat and Peshawar District.[28] The town is surrounded by two main streams and a smaller brook from 3 directions which flow throughout the year thus lending Lund Khwar its name as well as a safety against possible invaders, a strategic point and basis for its foundation. The town is connected with Sher Garh through a main road which reaches the town through a bridge on the stream.

Localities and parts

Lund Khwar consists of the main town, once a walled town which had five gates, and its surrounding sub-towns known as "Banda" and "Meraa".[29] The heart of Lundkhwar is its main Bazaar called "Adaa" or Station. It is the junction point of roads leading to the different suburbs of Lundkhwar. Core Lund Khwar (once the walled town) is where peela kheil, Seeni, mamoti, Shah Bat Khel and Awal Khel are settled. But now the Lund Khwar main town has expended a lot around its previous existence. Now there is a big population living on the northern side of the bazaar commonly known as "Adda Cham", which has further multiplied in to mohallas and Chams. The Lund Khwar town includes the suburbs of Gul Mera (abdul kabir khan kali) and then Gulshan Abad on the west; which further extends to Salo on the north and Sanga, Ghano Dheri to the south, whereas Dagai, Mian Essa, Chail and JANGA(lower & upper) which is extended on one side to ALO(which then leads to KATLUNG(another town in the south-east of MARDAN, holding the old traces of BUDDHA civilization and gymstones on the hills)) and on the contrary to QASAMI (a dwelling habitat of the most sacred tribe MIAN and holding one of the vast graveyards of Asia) and a lot of small Bandas(small town holding 15 to 50 houses) lie in the north where it ends at Kandao BABA. On the east it is stretched to Saddad Baba and Shamshi Danda (a deep lake) on one side and Karkanai, Pul Kali and Muti Banda on the other. In the south here is Shahdand and a lot of Bhandas.

The Village Cemetery in Shah Dhand over the hill/Khat, in Lund Khwar.
The Village Cemetery in Shah Dhand over the hill/Khat, in Lund Khwar.

Tribes and sub tribes

The main population comprises Khattak and Yousaf Zai Tribes. The Khattak sub-tribes Pil Khel ,Mamooti,bara dewan khel, kooz dewan khel,Mishak are the early inhabitants, Shah Bat Khel, Awal Khel(both are direct descendants of Sadar Khan the famous Great grandson of Khushal Khan Khattak) beside a number of people belonging to different tribes, who migrated here are living jointly in Lund Khwar. The other main resident tribe is the Yousafzai settled mainly in Mian Eesa. A large number of Dalazak tribe also live in Lund Khwar.

The Yousaf Zai of Lund Khwar

About the Yousaf Zai of Lund Khwar, Horace Arthur Rose, Denzil Ibbetson (Sir), Edward Douglas Maclagan (Sir) et al.[30] write in their book entitled "A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West" on page 484:

"Uthman Khel: A powerful tribe, probably pathans of the Kodai branch of the Karlanri, which attached itself to the Yousafzai and Mandanr when the latter migrated from their seats on the North-West of the Sulaiman Range to the tract round Lund Khwar at the foot of the hills in the present Peshawar distrcit. Thence in the 16th century they occupied their current territory which is a mountainous tract between the Rud and Ambhar rivers and thence stretches eastwards between the Swat River and Peshawar District as far as the Ranizai and Sam Ranizai borders. A portion of the tribe originally belonging to the Sanizai, Bimbarzai and Peghzai septs still dwells in the country round Lund Khwar and has become separated from the rest of the tribe. The Utman Khel comprise many septs which are constantly at feuds with one another".

About the Yousafzais of today's Lund Khwar, Sir Olaf Caroe in his book entitled "The Pathans 55O B.C.-A.D. 1957" printed St Martin's Press 1958 by MacMillan and Company Limited, writes at "The Greek Historians 39"<[13]:

........."and with few exceptions the Yusuf- zais now the Mandanr section of them only hold the rest of the Samah Valley north of the Landai River. It is very hard to believe in the truth of this tradition. In those days the Samah 8 proper had no irrigation; it was a great dry tract, in many parts sandy, scored by ravines such as the Bagiari, Kalpanri, and Lund Khwar, with at best scattered cultivation from wells where the water table allowed it. The Doaba and Hashtnagar on the other hand are level lands beside the Kabul and Swat affluents, and it is almost certain that even then they enjoyed irrigation by inunda- tion. The Yusufzais by their own account ruled the roost: why should they have allotted the finest land to the Gigianis who had been disloyal to the tribal nexus, and to the Muhammadzais who were not even of the Khakhay brotherhood?"

Making the famous sweets of Lund Khwar; Amrassay, Lund Khwar Baazar, near Govt. College.
Making the famous sweets of Lund Khwar; Amrassay, Lund Khwar Baazar, near Govt. College.

The Khattaks of Lund Khwar

About the Khattaks of today's Lund Khwar, Sir Olaf Caroe in his book entitled "The Pathans 55O B.C.-A.D. 1957" printed St Martin's Press 1958 by MacMillan and Company Limited, writes at "The Greek Historians 39"<[13]:

Khattak family Tree. The Khattak super tribe and its sub tribes.

..........."Taken together, the Khataks and the Shitaks, who now have a common boundary close to Bannu, cover a stretch of territory as large as that held by any Afghan or Pathan tribe, whether Yusuf- zai, Durrani or Ghalji. From the Khatak settlements around Lundkhwar, close to the Malakand Pass, to the Shitak villages in Upper Daur in the Tochi, the distance is over 200 miles. The wide extent of their present territory, their large population, and the association of both groups of tribes at one time or another with the rich oases of Bannu and the Tochi, suggest sufficiently their importance in this family of peoples. They did not spring from nowhere in the night. They are Karlanris."

and at "220 The Pathans", writes:

............."The Khataks, loyal Mughal vassals under Akoray and his immediate successors, not only overran a considerable tract of Yusufzai country north of the Kabul River and opposite Akora, but planted a colony under the hills, separating the Yusufzais and the Mandanrs, in the area known as Baizai. That is the origin of the Khatak villages of Lundkhwar, Jamalgarhi and Katlang on the boundaries of Swat. In all the Mughal fighting against the Yusufzais the Khataks took a prominent part. Echoes of this rivalry can be heard in the poetry of Akoray's descendant, Khush- hal Khan.

In the scales of history the result was incommensurate with the effort put out. The might of Akbar had not prevailed in any decisive fashion against any of the tribes except those who found it to their interest, in return for consideration, to guard the King's highway."

Geology

"In Lund Khwar, the surface near the hills is a strong bed of lime stone pebbles mixed with boulders of conglomerate".[31]

Education

Lund Khwar has a lot of public and private educational institutes. Primary schools are established in almost every Mohallah of the town. The middle and high school are enough to accommodate the local as well as the students from the nearby villages. There is one degree college for boys and one for girls.

Miscellaneous information

The Area Code for Land Line telephones to Lund Khwar is 932.[32]

References

  1. ^ Tehsils & Unions in the District of Mardan - Government of Pakistan
  2. ^ Location of Landkhwar - Falling Rain Genomics
  3. ^ "The Gandharan er in the History of Ditrcit Mardan"
  4. ^ [The Royal Gazettor of Charsadda and Peshawar, Govt. British India, 1800s to 1900]
  5. ^ [The History of Peshawar (Tareekh i Peshawar 1900-1930), Published Peshawar 1920]
  6. ^ [History of the Khattaks and Yusafzai]
  7. ^ "Arrival of the Afghan Yousafzai in Mardan - an article at Khyber.org"
  8. ^ "Khattaks in Mardan's History - at Mardan.com"
  9. ^ "Malik Ako - The Great"
  10. ^ "Dilazak as Dil-Aazaak - at batkhela.org"
  11. ^ "Agra Travel Photos - The History Of Birbal"
  12. ^ "Archive.org - The Kingdom Of Afghanistan"
  13. ^ a b c "The Pathans 55O B.C.-A.D. 1957 By Sir Olaf Caroe"
  14. ^ "Alhaj Abdur Rahman Khan s/o Shahzada Khan - The Living History from the living descendent of Malik Khushal Khan the son of Malik Akko The Great of the Khattaks"[Various references and history from Alhaj Abdur Rahman khan s/o Khan Shahzada Khan great great grandson of Sadar Khan (Land Lord, Philanthrapist, treasury officer Dera Ismail Khan)]
  15. ^ "The life and times of General Sir James Browne, R.E., K.C.B., K.C.S.I. (Buster Browne) by General J.J. McLeod Innes p.44"
  16. ^ "Journal of the United Service Institution of India, Volumes 19-20, United Service Institution of India p.183"
  17. ^ "Eighteen years in the Khyber, 1879-1898, by Sir Robert Warburton, p.335"
  18. ^ "The Chitral campaign: a narrative of events in Chitral, Swat and Bajour, Harry Craufuird Thomson p.161"
  19. ^ "Life and times of Ranjit Singh:a saga of benevolent despotism, Bikrama Jit Hasrat p.137"
  20. ^ "Tribes of Central Asia, from the black mountain to Waziristan, Harold Carmichael Wylly p.120"
  21. ^ ["The Role Of the Khan of Lund Khwar in the All India Liberation Movement", An Article for The Daily Mashriq by Mr Alhaj Mohammad Rafiq Khan 1967]
  22. ^ a b "The Pathan unarmed: opposition & memory in the North West Frontier By Mukulika Banerjee"[1]
  23. ^ Women in Indian National Congress, 1921-1931, Rajan Mahan, p.294
  24. ^ Ethnicity, nationalism, and the Pakhtuns: the independence movement in India's North-west Frontier Province, Stephen Alan Rittenberg, p.150
  25. ^ Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah:a chronology, Muhammad Ali Siddiqui, Riaz Ahmad, p.152
  26. ^ "The Election Commission, Government of Pakistan"[www.ecp.gov.pk/content/na/NA-10.pdf]
  27. ^ "The Localities of Lund Khwar at Afghana.com"
  28. ^ "Glosk - Indexing the Planet - Lund Khwar"
  29. ^ "Lund Khwar - My Roots My Origins - A Booklet by Dr Salman Rafiq Khan, 19 May 2006 - Representing the whole typed material of the Wikipedia's page on Lund Khwar - Researched, edited and maintained by Dr Salman Rafiq Khan"["Lund Khwar", A Booklet by Dr Salman Rafiq Khan, 19 May 2006]
  30. ^ "A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West ..., Volume 3 By Horace Arthur Rose, Denzil Ibbetson (Sir)), Edward Douglas Maclagan et al."[2]
  31. ^ [ "Report of the regular settlement of the peshawar district of the punjab, captain e. g. g. hastings, p.14"]
  32. ^ "Pakistan Telephone Area Codes - on Angelfire.com"

Coordinates: 34°23′N 71°59′E / 34.383°N 71.983°E / 34.383; 71.983

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